`saqarTevlos ekonomika~  2009 (4)
  saeqsporto potenciali
saqarTveloSi turizmi CixSia
maka RaniaSvili

agvistos movlenebis Semdeg saqarTveloSi turistTa raodenoba 80%_iT Semcirda da samwuxarod saimedo prognozis gakeTeba am mimarTulebiT arc momavali sezonisaTvis SeiZleba. miuxedavad turizmis ganuzomeli mniSvnelobisa, qveynis ekonomikis ganviTarebisaTvis, miuxedavad imisa, rom dRes sayovelTao diskusia da piaria am sferoSi, mainc seriozuli safrTxeebisa da problembis winaSe vdgavarT.
   
   amamad SegviZlia movnaTloT 21_e saukune, turizmis sferosTvis gamowvevebis saukuned. rasac bevri mizezi aqvs _ terorizmis gazrdili safrTxe 2001 wlis 11 seqtembris teraqtebidan moyolebuli, bunebrivi katastrofebi, 2008 wlis zafxulSi katastrofulad gazrdili navTobis fasebi. marTalia, eqspertebi miiCneven, rom mTavari dartyma turizmisaTvis globaluri ekonomikuri krizisia, magram igi izrdeba da Semosavlebis zrdis umniSvnelovanes wyarodac gvevlineba, gansakuTrebiT iseTi qveynisaTvis, rogoric saqarTveloa.
   yvelasaTvis naTelia, rom ekonomikuri zrdis pirobebSi mosaxleobis Semosavalic izrdeba da Sesabamisad maRalia turistuli segmentis zrdis tempi. eqspertebis gaTvlebiT, Tu msoflio ekonomika wlis ganmavlobaSi 4%_iT izrdeba, maSin es turizmis sferos 6.5%_ian zrdas iwvevs. da piriqiT _ ekonomikis zrdis tempis Seneleba, analogiur jaWvur reaqcias iwvevs turizmis segmentisTvisac. miTumetes, turizmis mniSvneloba ganuzomelia msoflio ekonomikaSi. msoflio turizmis organizaciis (UNWTO) monacemebis mixedviT, 2008 wels saerTaSoriso turistTa raodenobam 924 milions miaRwia. miuxedavad imisa, rom turistTa nakadma 2008 wlis meore naxevarSi sagrZnoblad ikolo, es maCvenebeli 2007 wlis maCvenebelze 2%_iT metia. mogzaurobisa da turizmis msoflios sabWos (WTTC) monacemebis mixedviT, turizmisa da mogzaurobis segmenti globaluri GDP_is 9.9%_s, msoflio eqsportis 10.9%_s da msoflio investiciebis 9.4%_s Seadgens.
   UNWTO_m gamoaqveyna yovelwliuri kvleva `The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report~ (TTCR), sadac eqspertebi turizmis segmentSi arsebuli zogadi tendenciebis Sesaxeb msjeloben da sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso organizaciebsa da qveynebis mTavrobebs sferos ganviTarebisaTvis rekomendaciebs aZleven.
   navTobis fasi da saerTaSoriso turizmi
   erT_erTi mniSvnelovani faqtori, romelic gavlenas axdens turizmis ganviTarebaze aris navTobi da misi fasi. 2008 wlis zafxulSi bareli navTobis fasma 147 aSS dolars miaRwia. navTobis maRali fasi ki turistuli momsaxurebis mTel servisze fass jaWvuri reaqciiT zrdis. marTalia, globaluri finansuri krizisis gavleniT navTobis fasic TandaTan daeca da 2008 wlis meoTxe kvartalSi 45 aSS dolari Seadgina, magram miuxedavad amisa, prognozebi arcTu optimisturia, eqspertTa nawili varaudobs, rom, rogorc ki msoflio ekonomika recesiidan gamosvlas daiwyebs navTobis fasic gaizrdeba da 100 dolarian niSnuls gautoldeba. aseT prognozss energetikis saerTaSoriso saagentoSic (IEA) eTanxmebian, risi erT_erTi ZiriTadi mizezi, CineTisa da indoeTis ganviTarebadi ekonomikebis mxridan navTobis stabilurad mzardi moTxovna iqneba. barelze 100 aSS dolari ki didi gamowvevaa aviakompaniebisaTvis. ramac SesaZloa, aviasferos ganviTareba seriozulad Seaferxos.
   1950_2007 wlebSi aviamgzavrebis raodenoba, yovelwliurad, saSualod, 7.8%_iT izrdeboda. 70_iani wlebis dasasrulsa da 80_iani wlebis dasawyisis navTobis maRalma fasma saerTaSoriso aviareisebi odnav Seaferxa, magram 80_iani wlebis Semdeg 2004 wlamde, roca msoflio ekonomika SedarebiT stabiluri mdgomareobiT xasiaTdeboda, zrda TvalSisacemi iyo. 90_iani wlebis Semdeg ki ekonomklasis, SedarebiT iaffasiani reisebis gaCenam, mgzavrTa raodenoba gazarda. aviasferos stabiluri ganviTareba turizmis sferozec dadebiTad aisaxeboda. magram dRevandeli viTareba sxvagvaria. msoflios wamyvani aviakompaniebi ukve akeTeben prognozs, rom mgzavrTa nakadis kleba didxans gagrZeldeba, aviabileTebis siZviris gamo, risi mTavari mizezi, Tavis mxriv, navTobis maRali fasebia. marTalia, 2008 wlis zafxulis Semdeg, misi fasebi sagrZnoblad daeca, magram navTobis saSualo istoriul fasTan SedarebiT mainc maRalia.
   2000_2007 wlebSi, roca sawvavis fasi stabiluri iyo, navTobis fasi aviabileTis Rirebulebis mxolod 18%_s Seadgenda. mas Semdeg ki, rac navTobis fasma 100 aSS dolars gadaaWarba, aviabileTis Rirebulebis 1/3_di gaxda. dabalfasiani bileTebisaTvis navTobis fasi misi Rirebulebis 50%_s Seadgens. aviabileTebis fasebis 10%_iT zrda turistul servisze moTxovnis 17%_iT Semcirebas gamoiwvevs. aviabileTebis fasi aSS_dan evropis umetesi qveynis mimarTulebiT, gasul zafxulSi, 150_dan 350 aSS dolaramde gaizarda. bileTebis maRali fasebis gamo, sarTaSoriso kurortebze dasvenebisgan bevrma turistma Tavi Seikava. aSS_s mogzaurobis asociaciis mier gavrcelebuli informaciiT, turistul danaxarjTa 80% aSS_Si Sida turizmze modis. asevea evrokavSiris qveynebSic, sxvadasxva qveynis mosaxleoba an Tavis qveyanaSi an mezobel saxelmwifoSi ekonomiur dasvenebas irCevs, radgan mcire manZilis gamo aviabileTebis fasi ufro dabalia. garda amisa, imisaTvis rom mgzavrebisaTvis servisis saerTo Rirebuleba sagrZnoblad ar gaizardos, aviakompaniebs sxva momsaxurebebze fasebis daweva uxdebaT. rac did zaralTs ukavSirdeba. Sedegad, 2008 wels zaralma aviaindustriaSi 5.2 miliard aSS dolars miaRwia. 2009 wlisaTvis ki eqspertebi 4.1 miliardi dolaris odenobis zarals elian.
   aviabileTebis fasebi saqarTveloSic aqtualuri Temaa. bevri turoperatori da turisti aRniSnavs, rom saqarTvelos turizmis ganviTarebas, mgzavrobasTan dakavSirebuli maRali xarjebi sagrZnoblad aferxebs. zemoT, aSS_dan evropis mimarTulebiT 350 aSS dolaramde gazrdili fasi vaxseneT, magram es araferia im fasTan SedarebiT rac saqarTvelos aviabazarze imave periodSi arsebobda.
   rogorc CvenTan saubrisas turistuli saagento `jorjian eqspres trevelis~ direqtorma nino mJavanaZem aRniSna: `moTxovna turistul produqtze saqarTveloSi Zalian daeca. xalxi TavSekavebulia, maT cota aqvT danazogi imisaTvis, rom daisvenon da krizisis pirobebSi es ufro SesamCnevi gaxda. krizisis garda aris aviabileTebis fasis problemac. Cven turistebis gareT gamyvani kompania varT da, ra Tqma unda, aviakompaniebTan vTanamSromlobT. magaliTad, TurqeTSi gadafrena Zalian Zviria. marTalia, avtobusis bileTi daaxloebiT 160_170 aSS dolari Rirs, magram avtobusiT mgzavrobas didi dro miaqvs da did manZilze mgavroba yvelas ar SeuZlia. rac Seexeba aviabileTebs, Zalian Zviria, magaliTad `cxel sezonze~ bileTi TurqeTis mimarTulebiT Tbilisidan 500_600 dolaric Rirda. `Carterebi~ ki 700 dolaramde.~
   rogorc vxedavT, iseve rogorc mTels msoflioSi, saqarTveloSic aviabileTebis maRali fasebi erT_erTi seriozuli problemaa. Tumca, sqarTvelos turoperatorebi, navTobis maRali fasebis garda, aviabileTebis fasebis xelovnur gazrdaze saubroben da am faqts aviakompaniebs abraleben. komentarisaTvis saqarTveloSi moqmed erT_erT msxvil aviakompanias davukavSirdiT.
   `avstriis aviaxazebis~ (`Austrian~) menejeris asistentis Tamriko vardiaSvilis gancxadebiT, `turistuli kompaniebi amas, ra Tqma unda, piradi gadasaxedidan amboben. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom fass yvelgan bazari qmnis, es aqsiomaa da mtkiceba ar Wirdeba. fasi gamomdinareobs bazris situaciidan. ra Tqma unda, moqmedi regularuli fasebi, romlebic sistmaSia cota Zviria, magram aris specialuri fasdaklebebi sxvadasxva reisebze, turistuli jgufebisaTvis da a.S.D mgonia saqarTveloSi ufro metad, sxva raRac aris Zviri da ara bileTebi, Tundac, is turistuli momsaxurebis servisi. yvelafers Tavisi fasi aqvs da turistul saagentoebs ratomRac goniaT, rom sruli momsaxurebiT aviakompaniis bileTis fasi im e.w. dabalbiujetiani (Low Budget) aviakompaniebis bileTis fass unda uTanabrdebodes, romelTac reisze sakvebi an sxva damatebiTi momsaxureba ar aqvT.~
   aviabileTebis fasi ar aris erTaderTi problema, romelic turizmis ganviTarebas aferxebs, miT umetes, saqarTveloSi. rogorc, zemoT dasaxelebuli globaluri kvlevis (TTCR) avtorebi da eqspertebi miuTiTeben, mravali sirTule turizmis sferos ganviTarebas adgilobriv doneze eqmneba, am gamowvevebTan gamklaveba ki mTavrobebis valia. erT_erTi rekomendacia, romelsac kvlevis avtorebi msoflios mTavrobebs aZleven, Semdegia: imisaTvis rom navTobis meryevma fasebma turizmis ganviTarebaze naklebi gavlena moaxdinon, turistuli momsaxurebis sxvadasxva servisze fasebi unda dabalansdes (sastumroebi, restornebi).
   saqarTvelos kurortebze ki sastumroebis siZvires da momsaxurebis dabal dones bevri uCivis. am problemas saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis ministric gansakuTrebiT usvams xazs. laSa Jvaniam `eqspo jorjiaSi~ saerTaSoriso turistuli gamofenis gaxsnisas, sferos ganviTarebis erT_erT xelis SemSlel faqtorad turistuli paketis siZvire daasaxela. ministris gancxadebiT, saqarTveloSi sastumroebi, mezobeli qveynebis sastumroebTan SedarebiT, sakmaod Zviria.
   sastumroebis maRal fass usvams xazs `jorjian eqspres `trevelis~ direqtori nino mJavanaZec: `bevr qarTvel damsvenebels surs, wavides dasasveneblad imave TurqeTSi imitom, rom iq sastumroebi Zalian iafi Rirs, sadac Sedis mTeli dRe sakvebi, momsaxurebis kargi servisi. saqarTveloSi ki sastumroebs, ZiriTadad, mxolod dilis sauzme aqvT servisSi, iseTi sastumro, rom mTeli dRis kvebas uzrunvelyofdes iSviaTia. aseT pirobebSi damsvenebels qarTul sastumroSi mTeli dRe sammagi da oTxmagi exarjeba. sazRvargareT SeiZleba 10 dRis manZilze sastumroSi daisveno 300 dolarad da zedmeti kapiki ar dagexarjos, magram saqarTveloSi 300 dolarad rom waxvide baTumSi an qobuleTSi, romelime sastumroSi, danaxarjebs winaswar ubralod ver gansazRvrav, imitom rom sxva raRaceebSi ormagi gexarjeba. maSin roca qarTul sastumroebSi momsaxurebis servisi gacilebiT dabalia. kidev erTi mniSvnelovani Semaferxebeli faqtori~ ganagrZobs nino mJavanaZe _ `sabanko ganvadebebze gazrdili saprocento ganakveTia. Cveulebrivi muSa_mosamsaxure xalxis didi nawili bankis saSualebiT isvenebda, maT bankidan gamoqondaT krediti da Semdeg ganvadebis Tanxas nel_nela faravdnen,axla ki bankebma ise gazardes sakredito procenti, rom turists dasveneba ormagi ujdeba da misTvis kreditis gamotanas azri aRar aqvs. Tu adre iyo 10_dan 20%_mde saprocento ganakveTebi, gasul zafxuls 39_40%_mde gaizarda. SarSan am faqtmac Seuwyo xeli qarTvel damsvenebelTa nakadis SemcirebasDda es omamde xdeboda.~ (stili daculia).
   garda amisa, turistuli kompaniebis nawili saqarTveloSi arastabiluri politikuri viTarebis gamo wels sezonis CaSlas ar gamoricxavs. agvistos omis Semdeg saqarTvelos imiji saerTaSoriso asparezze sakmaod Sesustda da Tu qveyanaSi politikuri situacia ar daregulirda, momaval turistul sezonze damRupvelad imoqmedebs. amis gamo, aWaraSi wels ucxoeli turistebis nakadis seriozul zrdas ar elian. rogorc aWaris turizmis departamentSi acxadeben, 2009 wels maqsimumi 2007 wlis maCvenebelze gasvla iqneba. rac daaxloebiT 350 aTasi turistia. sezonis pikze ki 200 aTas damsvenebels elodebian. Tu gasul wlebSi turistebi aWaraSi saSualod erTi kviriT Cerdebodnen, mimdinare ekonomikuri krizisis gaTvaliswinebiT, wels maTi nawili albaT mxolod 2_3 dRiT darCeba, rac, bunebrivia, Semosavlebis Semcirebasac gamoiwvevs. am sakiTxebze aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis turizmisa da kurortebis departamentis marketingisa da reklamis ganyofilebis ufross malxaz malaymaZes vesaubreT:
   _ agvistos movlenebis Semdeg CvenTan faqtobrivad Sewyda turistTa Camosvla. aWaraSi 2007 wels daaxloebiT 350000 turisti Camovida. 2008 wels ki daaxloebiT 450000 turistis Camosvlas velodiT. agvistomde Camovida daaxloebiT 247000_mde turisti da mere gavCerdiT. imitom rom nebismieri saomari moqmedeba da arastabiluri mdgomareba, pirvel rigSi, turizmze moqmedebs. wels msoflio ekonomikuri krizisis miuxedavad, Cven mainc optimisturad varT ganwyobili. Tu iqneba regionSi stabiluri mdgomareoba gacilebiT meti turisti Camova vidre 2007 wels.
    _ ra gaZlevT amgvari optimizmis safuZvels?
   
_ es finansuri krizisi jerjerobiT met_naklebad Segvexo. maSin roca krizisi mTeli ZaliT igrZnoba baltiispireTis qveynebSi, ruseTSi, ukrainaSi, xorvatiaSi, sloveniaSi da ase Semdeg. romlebic, Cveni ZiriTadi konkurentebi arian turizmis sferoSi. aseve TurqeTic, magram SeiZleba iTqvas, rom maT turistul infrastruqturamde bevri gviklia. Tumca, aRsaniSnavia is garemoeba, rom finansur krizisamde turistebi ZiriTadad 2 kviriT isvenebdnen da SedarebiT ZviradRirebul kurortebze, axla isini iZulebulebi arian ekonomiur dasvenebas mimarTon, risTvisac mosaxerxebelia saqarTvelos kurortebi.
   TurqeTi da somxeTi, turistebis aWaraSi Semosvlis mxriv, lideroben. wina wlebTan SedarebiT turistebis nakadi TurqeTidan daaxloebiT 7_jer gaizarda. isini, ZiriTadad, paraskevsa da SabaT_kviras Camodian da baTumSi rCebian, radgan transportireba aris Zalian mosaxerxebeli. baTumi_stambulis mimarTulebiT yoveldRe aviareisi sruldeba daDam aviabileTebis fasi gacilebiT naklebia vidre Tbilisi_stambulis. bevr Turqs qalaqSi gaxsnili samorineebi izidavs, rac maT qveyanaSi akrZalulia. garda amisa TurqeTidan saqarTveloSi bevri, maT Soris, turistuli investiciaa Semosuli.
   SarSandeli omis gamo, faqtobrivad ar gvyavda damsvenebeli somxeTidan. axla ki maTi interesi Zalian didia, rac `eqspo jorjias~ saerTaSoriso turistul gamofenaze monawile somxurma kompaniebmac dagvidastures.
   garda amisa, baTumSi 8_10 maiss gamofenas vatarebT, sadac sxvadasxva qveynis saerTaSoriso turistuli kompaniebi warmodgebian. ukve miviReT Tanxmoba somxeTidan, azerbaijanidan, ukrainidan, belorusiidan, baltiispireTis qveynebidan, TurqeTidan, Cvenc bolo sami wlis manZilze regularulad vmonawileobT baltiispireTis did sam saerTaSoriso gamofenaze, esenia: rigis, vilniusis da talinis. vawyobT SemecnebiT_sareklamo turebs ucxoeli JurnalistebisaTvis da ase Semdeg. vTvliT, rom kompleqsSi yvela RonisZieba garkveul Sedegs gamoiRebs. mTavaria iyos mSvidoba da stabiluroba.
   aviabileTebisa da sastumroebis fasze ras ityviT? maT siZvireze saqarTveloSi mravali turoperatori miuTiTebs.
   _ logikuria, Tu navTobi gaiafda aviabileTebis fasebic unda Semcirdes. miuxedavad imisa, rom finansuri krizisis gamo aviabileTebsa da frenebze moTxovnam iklo, aviabileTebis fasi mainc im doneze rCeba. es saxelmwifom unda daabalansos. ra Tqma unda, aviabileTebis fasebi Zviria da Zalian zrdis mTliani turistuli paketis fass. aseve Zviria sastumroebis fasebi, ase Tu ise sastumroebis fasebis dabalanseba SeiZleba, jerjerobiT ki isini maRalia, momsaxurebis servisi ki dabali. Cveni ZiriTadi mizani unda iyos, is rom momsaxurebis servisis done fass Seesabamebodes.
   turistebis nakadis zrdas arc saqarTvrelos turizmisa da kurortebis departamentSi elian. rogorc iq acxadeben, agvistos omis Semdeg turistebis raodenoba saqarTveloSi 80%_iT Semcirda da, amJamad, mTavari mizania qveyanaSi ucxoeli turistebis raodenoba 2007 wlis maCvenebels gauTanabrdes. mdgomareobas isic arTulebs, rom saerTaSoriso turoperatorebs saqarTvelo sakuTar ganacxadebSi 2010 wlidan hyavT Setanili.
   turistul seqtorSi Seqmnili mZime viTarebis miuxedavad, TbilisSi sagamofeno centr `eqspo jorjiaSi~ 3_5 aprils me_11 saerTaSoriso turistuli gamofena moewyo, sadac turistuli produqti 90_mde kompaniam waradgina. gamofenaze qarTuli kompaniebis garda, azerbaijanuli, somxuri, Turquli da avstriuli kompaniebi warmodgnen.
   es gamofena adasturebs, rom sferoSi marTlac seriozuli da Rrma krizisia. turistul gamofenaze, romelic turoperatorebisaTvis saqmiani urTierTobebis damyarebis erT_erTi mTavari asparezi unda iyos, Zalian cota turoperatori warmodga. sagamofeno stendebs ki, ZiriTadad, sxvadasxva saxelmwifo organoebis departamentebi da regionaluri ganyofilebebi avsebdnen. rogorc saqarTvelodan, aseve azerbaijanidan da somxeTidan. albaT amis gamoc, gamofenaze gansakuTrebuli aqcenti Sida_turizmsa da regionebze gakeTda. gamofenaze warmodgenili iyo saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxe arsebuli turistuli infrastruqturiT _ sanatoriumebiT, pansionatebiT, dasasvenebeli saxlebiTa da samkurnalo_gamajansaRebeli centrebiT.
   gamofenaze aseve mravlad iyo warmodgenili nacionaluri stiliT Sesrulebuli sxvadasxva saxis produqciac. saqmiani urTierTobisa da saubris nacvlad, mcirericxovani damTvalierebeli erovnul tanisamosSi gamowyobili saTamaSoebisa da sxvadasxva aqsesuarebis TvalierebiT erToboda.
   aseTia arcTu saxarbielo suraTi, romelic dRes saqarTvelos turizmis sferoSia Seqmnili da optimisturi prognozis gakeTeba am etapze albaT SeuZlebelia. msoflio globalur ekonomikur kriziss rom Tavi davaneboT, saqarTveloSi turizmis ganviTarebas amis gareSec bevri faqtori uSlis xels. raSic ekonomikis ganviTarebis saministro mTavar damnaSaved turistuli servisis siZvires miiCnevs da amaSi brals turistul saagentoebsa da sastumroebs sdebs; turistuli saagentoebi xels aviakompaniebisaken iSveren da aviabileTebis maRal fasze miuTiTeben. amasTanave, qveyanaSi arsebuli daZabuli politikuri viTarebisa da mudmivi saomari ritorikis gaviTvaliswinebiT, saqarTveloSi Camosvlis survili male mxolod Tavgadasavlebis moyvare eqstremal turistebsRa Tu eqnebaT.


gamomcemeli: Tavisufali ekonomikis instituti da: saqarTvelos savaWro_samrewvelo palata